Narcissists and feedback

Narcissists and feedback

Dealing with difficult personalities
Difficult personalities

Narcissists and feedback

 

People make mistakes and can learn from them. With narcissists this is unlikely. Even to harmless and cautious feedback, narcissists respond as if it were harsh inappropriate criticism. They react offended and insulted because this could damage their self-image. At least inwardly they react angrily. However, anger can also easily lead to significant aggression.

Feedback and narcissists

When you express criticism to narcissists, they experience it like a massive physical attack. For narcissists, it feels like the destruction of their person. Depending on the relationship and context, the reaction is usually very exaggerated. This happens sooner or later. Sometimes the response can happen even much later when you no longer expect it. It can be overt or covert. However, one result is quite certain: narcissists do not forget even accidental attacks. They want revenge at any price.

 

 

 

Is it worth it?

 

Even from your point of view, harmless and constructive feedback will be resented by narcissists. They perceive something like this as an insult and take it personally. So, be careful and exercise extreme tact and sensitivity, just as a bomb disposal expert would.
Before you address issues, think about whether you want to do this despite the risks. Insight is usually not to be expected from narcissists. Depending on the situation, you should at best expect hypocritical insight, excuses, blame, or emotional reactions such as outbursts of rage.

 

 

 

Emotional reactions

 

Stay calm during outbursts of rage by narcissists. It is part of the preferred behavioral repertoire of narcissistic personalities. Such people know how to manipulate others. Learn to recognize their manipulation techniques.

 

 

 

Caution

 

If, despite the risks, you dare to criticize a narcissist, then wrap it up well. Feed narcissists with a lot of acceptable praise. The subsequent criticism should be given in small doses. Do you find this exhausting? So do I!

In any case, there is one thing you can forget about: changing narcissistic personalities. You won’t bring them to insights or establish a relationship at eye level. These are pointless attempts.

Help dealing with narcissists (no legal advice!)

 

It's urgent? Thanks to an immediate bank transfer, it is also possible to organize sessions at short notice, often even on the same day. In any case, you can orient yourself by reading the list with fees. Typically, a telephone call of 60 minutes is enough. Either you come to me in Berlin or we organize a telephone meeting or use the Internet with a video conferencing system. If you wish professional support for your decision-making, communication, or because you suffer emotionally from narcissists, then we can arrange an appointment.

As much as I would like to - with the large number of requests I receive, I keep the amount of volunteer help at a feasible level.

If you want professional support (in the areas I offer and this does not include any legal advice), then we can make an appointment. Either you come to me in Berlin or we make a telephone session or use the Internet with video support. This has proven to be very successful. Thanks to real-time bank transfer, it is also possible to book appointments at short notice. We can make an appointment first or even easier and faster; you book your session and as soon as the fee is received, we find the next available appointment.

If it is about the psychological effects, I offer therapeutic help for people suffering from narcissists and coaching for other issues. You can find the fees here. Please note the reduced fees for therapeutic assistance for people suffering from narcissistic abuse.

Not all sufferers have the financial means to do this, I know. You can then at least use the comment function to exchange information with other sufferers. Sometimes I also answer questions there, occasionally even beyond that. I am aware of the suffering that can result from contact with narcissists. However, the day has only 24h, and therefore I ask for understanding for my procedures. I am aware of the suffering that often results from contact with narcissists. That is why I offer a free telephone consultation every first Monday of the month from 9:00 to 12:00 for initial impulses. Please use exclusively the telephone number +49 (0)30 864 213 65 for this purpose. Calls outside these hours and on other telephone numbers exclusively in the context of the professional support mentioned.

So: Questions that may also interest other people, please ask in the comments. Some topics are of a more private nature and I offer professional support for them. Let's have a direct conversation about this. If you are interested in support, for organizational questions and appointments you can reach me personally best by e-mail (mail@karstennoack.de), conditionally also by phone +49 (0)30 864 213 65., mobile +49 (0)30 864 213 65.

Preparation of important conversations and negotiations

 

Communication can be very easy. But often it is not. Sometimes we say things and then later notice from the reaction of our conversation partners that they seem to have spoken to someone completely different. I didn't say that with the best will in the world. - Or did I say that after all?

More or less consciously, conversations are about convincing other people of something - be it a special offer, your personality, a perspective, or a necessity. If this doesn't happen fast enough and above all not exactly to the point and descriptively, the person we are talking to quickly loses interest, and we lose the hoped-for opportunity. — Conversation failed.

You can let me support you in the preparation of your conversations and negotiations (to be on the safe side: no legal advice!). Find out how you and your message are perceived (arguments, body language, language, voice, and much more). I will familiarize you with effective tools and communication strategies. Develop your psychological skills, learn to stay calm, act confidently, remain authentic, and finally convince.

Just ask me personally

 

Please post any questions that may interest other readers in the comments. Are you looking for professional support?

If you are interested in coaching, training, or consulting, for organizational questions and to make an appointment, you can reach me best via this contact form (It is up to you whether you enter personal data) or by e-mail (mail@karstennoack.com). Otherwise, you may reach me by telephone at +49(0)30 864 213 68 and mobile phone at +49(0)1577 704 53 56 from Monday to Thursday from 9:00 to 18:00. Most of the time I am in sessions, so please leave a message with your phone number in Germany, then. Please remember to be very specific about the reason for your call. I will call you back as soon as possible. The privacy policy can be found here.

Transparency is important. Therefore, you will find answers to frequently asked questions already here, for example about me (profile), the services, the fees, and getting to know me. If this suits you, I look forward to working with you.

 

 

 

Message

 

I have read and accept the privacy policy.

Remarks:

In the address bar of your browser, the URL should begin with "https://www.karstennoack.com/...". This indicates a secure connection (SSL). Whether you enter your real name is up to you.

P.S.

 

What experience have you had with narcissists?

Articles

Expecting apologies from narcissists

Again and again, non-narcissists are under the illusion of receiving an honest apology from narcissistic personalities. You should know; narcissists don’t really apologize and respond to such demands as if they were under attack.

17 signs that someone is a manipulator

17 signs that someone is a manipulator

Not every attempt to manipulate us is obvious. Especially the professional manipulators learn how to hide their intentions. Unfortunately, there are a lot of those manipulators in business and private life. Learn how to recognize manipulators.

read more
36 indications to identify narcissists

36 indications to identify narcissists

Narcissists are driven primarily by power, fame, and recognition. That’s not bad, right? If there weren’t so many people with narcissistic tendencies, there wouldn’t be many achievements and world records. However, we would not have to suffer from many disadvantages. As fascinating as narcissists may seem at first glance, they are in reality selfish and emotionally cold. Only their self-pity is boundless. Only the others make mistakes.

In the article, you will learn how to identify narcissists.

read more

This article is a short excerpt from the more comprehensive course materials my clients receive in a group or individual training or coaching.

Published: January 2, 2012
Author: Karsten Noack
Revision: August 22nd, 2022
Translation: ./.
German version: https://www.karstennoack.de/zu-ist-zuviel-umgang-mit-narzissten/
K:
H:
T: RR
#339

Therapeutic help for people suffering from narcissists

Therapeutic help for people suffering from narcissists

Psychological help for people who have suffered or are suffering from narcissists
Narcissists

Consequences of narcissism

 

Again and again, I help people who suffer or have suffered from narcissists. Mostly it is about preparing communication for problematic situations and making good decisions (on my part of course without legal advice!).

Narcissistic abuse

 

Narcissistic abuse is the term used to describe the harmful behavior of narcissistic people. Many people primarily think of violence as physical violence. However, verbal and emotional violence can also cause deep wounds. This is also violence!

Depending on the situation, many affected people hesitate for a very long time until they seek practical, legal, and emotional help.

Possible people to contact are coaches, lawyers, therapists, and counseling centers. Unfortunately, narcissists very often succeed in thwarting such attempts to escape. They know how to assert their interests through manipulation. With appropriate support, it is easier to take good care of oneself. The reward is a fulfilling, self-determined life. The journey to this goal requires courage. It is good to have support.

 

 

 

Mental consequences of narcissistic abuse

 

People who suffer from narcissists have to cope with different consequences. Common consequences include:

 

  • Feelings of guilt
  • Loss of self-esteem and the associated loss of access to inner and outer competencies, talents, and skills
  • Loss of confidence in your perception of reality states of confusion and emptiness in the head
  • Anxiety and panic attacks
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder with nightmares, jitteriness, escape, and avoidance tendencies.
  • Depression
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorders
  • Exhaustion syndromes like Burn Out
  • Physical symptoms for which no physical cause can be identified
  • Confusion, disorientation, and depersonalization syndromes
  • Antisocial behavioral problems
  • Higher tendency to substance-related addictions (alcohol and anxiety-relieving tablets)
  • Those who have been subjected to narcissistic abuse are more likely to develop an anxiety-preventing, dependent, or narcissistic personality structure or disorder.
  • Chronic states of tension

 

 

 

Therapeutic help

 

As a coach, I support you with your communication and decisions, also in the context of narcissistic personalities. As a therapist, I am here to help you to free yourself from the emotional impact that results from contact with narcissists. I am specialized in anxiety and anxiety disorders.

Help dealing with narcissists (no legal advice!)

 

It's urgent? Thanks to an immediate bank transfer, it is also possible to organize sessions at short notice, often even on the same day. In any case, you can orient yourself by reading the list with fees. Typically, a telephone call of 60 minutes is enough. Either you come to me in Berlin or we organize a telephone meeting or use the Internet with a video conferencing system. If you wish professional support for your decision-making, communication, or because you suffer emotionally from narcissists, then we can arrange an appointment.

As much as I would like to - with the large number of requests I receive, I keep the amount of volunteer help at a feasible level.

If you want professional support (in the areas I offer and this does not include any legal advice), then we can make an appointment. Either you come to me in Berlin or we make a telephone session or use the Internet with video support. This has proven to be very successful. Thanks to real-time bank transfer, it is also possible to book appointments at short notice. We can make an appointment first or even easier and faster; you book your session and as soon as the fee is received, we find the next available appointment.

If it is about the psychological effects, I offer therapeutic help for people suffering from narcissists and coaching for other issues. You can find the fees here. Please note the reduced fees for therapeutic assistance for people suffering from narcissistic abuse.

Not all sufferers have the financial means to do this, I know. You can then at least use the comment function to exchange information with other sufferers. Sometimes I also answer questions there, occasionally even beyond that. I am aware of the suffering that can result from contact with narcissists. However, the day has only 24h, and therefore I ask for understanding for my procedures. I am aware of the suffering that often results from contact with narcissists. That is why I offer a free telephone consultation every first Monday of the month from 9:00 to 12:00 for initial impulses. Please use exclusively the telephone number +49 (0)30 864 213 65 for this purpose. Calls outside these hours and on other telephone numbers exclusively in the context of the professional support mentioned.

So: Questions that may also interest other people, please ask in the comments. Some topics are of a more private nature and I offer professional support for them. Let's have a direct conversation about this. If you are interested in support, for organizational questions and appointments you can reach me personally best by e-mail (mail@karstennoack.de), conditionally also by phone +49 (0)30 864 213 65., mobile +49 (0)30 864 213 65.

Just ask me personally

 

Please post any questions that may interest other readers in the comments. Are you looking for professional support?

If you are interested in coaching, training, or consulting, for organizational questions and to make an appointment, you can reach me best via this contact form (It is up to you whether you enter personal data) or by e-mail (mail@karstennoack.com). Otherwise, you may reach me by telephone at +49(0)30 864 213 68 and mobile phone at +49(0)1577 704 53 56 from Monday to Thursday from 9:00 to 18:00. Most of the time I am in sessions, so please leave a message with your phone number in Germany, then. Please remember to be very specific about the reason for your call. I will call you back as soon as possible. The privacy policy can be found here.

Transparency is important. Therefore, you will find answers to frequently asked questions already here, for example about me (profile), the services, the fees, and getting to know me. If this suits you, I look forward to working with you.

 

 

 

Message

 

I have read and accept the privacy policy.

Remarks:

In the address bar of your browser, the URL should begin with "https://www.karstennoack.com/...". This indicates a secure connection (SSL). Whether you enter your real name is up to you.

P.S.

 

Do you have any questions about narcissism and narcissists?

Articles

Expecting apologies from narcissists

Again and again, non-narcissists are under the illusion of receiving an honest apology from narcissistic personalities. You should know; narcissists don’t really apologize and respond to such demands as if they were under attack.

17 signs that someone is a manipulator

17 signs that someone is a manipulator

Not every attempt to manipulate us is obvious. Especially the professional manipulators learn how to hide their intentions. Unfortunately, there are a lot of those manipulators in business and private life. Learn how to recognize manipulators.

read more
36 indications to identify narcissists

36 indications to identify narcissists

Narcissists are driven primarily by power, fame, and recognition. That’s not bad, right? If there weren’t so many people with narcissistic tendencies, there wouldn’t be many achievements and world records. However, we would not have to suffer from many disadvantages. As fascinating as narcissists may seem at first glance, they are in reality selfish and emotionally cold. Only their self-pity is boundless. Only the others make mistakes.

In the article, you will learn how to identify narcissists.

read more

This article is a short excerpt from the more comprehensive course materials my clients receive in a group or individual training or coaching.

Published: May 20, 2020
Author: Karsten Noack
Revision: September 23, 2020
Translation: ./.
German version: https://www.karstennoack.de/narzissten-hilfe/
H:
T: RR
#852

30 tips for communicating with narcissists. Dealing with narcissists. Too much is too much!

30 tips for communicating with narcissists. Too much is too much! Dealing with narcissists.

When communication might be a little easier ...
Narcism

Communication with narcissists

 

Tips for dealing with people who are overly in love with themselves, with narcissists. They can radiate charm and seem quite nice at first glance; narcissists. Many of them are eloquent, humorous, self-confident, and attract attention. But as good as the first impression may be, narcissists expose themselves as egomaniacs. With their unhealthy self-love and egocentrism, they then strain the nerves with their allure. Usually, there is no valuable content behind the packaging, but this is vehemently concealed. How to communicate and deal with narcissists without despair.

Video

42 Tips on how to deal with narcissists

Only when you start the video a connection to YouTube™ is established. Please read the notes on data protection.

Dealing with narcissists

 

Yes, they can radiate charm and seem quite nice at first glance; narcissists. Many of them are eloquent, humorous, self-confident, and attract attention. But as good as the first impression may be, narcissists expose themselves as egomaniacs. With their exaggerated self-love and egocentrism, they then strain the nerves of their fellow human beings with their allure. In most cases, the content is not worth the effort of packaging, but it is deceived. 
The beautiful appearance is deceptive and the façade collapses, all just a show. As long as a few admirers can still be found, narcissists won’t stop. They can be entertaining at short notice. Unfortunately, too many people let themselves be deceived, which is why narcissists too often manage to get into positions where they can do some damage.

 

 

 

Narcissists have an exaggerated desire for recognition

 

The exaggerated desire for recognition and admiration is caused by disturbed self-esteem. For such an ego, any stage is too small to be shared with others. Other people have only one right to be present anyway; as admirers!

Narcissists do without empathy. They also renounce any form of feedback towards you. The exception is praise, which is perceived as appropriate recognition. Dealing with narcissists is rarely a joy.

It is a great advantage to recognize such contemporaries at an early stage and avoid them. However, it may be that a situation requires you to communicate with a narcissist. Therefore, here are some recommendations that can sometimes save you a few gray hairs.

30 tips for communicating with narcissists

 

 

1. Recognize narcissists

 

The first step is to recognize narcissists as such. Even if a person feels particularly attractive, intelligent, or special in some other way, he or she does not have to have a narcissistic disposition.

A healthy portion of self-love, the ability to recognize and consider one’s own needs, self-confidence, and self-esteem belong to a sovereign personality. To a reasonable extent, these characteristics are neither harmful nor pathological. The quantity makes the poison.

The most negative characteristics of narcissists are often not recognized as such in the beginning. Only with time and more frequent contact, do they become visible. Narcissists do not want to be perceived as mean, violent, mean, malicious, ruthless, or sadistic people. That is why they also press their aggression into socially acceptable forms. Narcissists present themselves from their best side before they turn out to be such. They hide their true intentions behind the façade. And they are usually very good at that.

Narcissists have a disturbed relationship between altruism and egoism, respect and ruthlessness, sensibility and hypersensitivity, especially their sense of self-worth and external value is disturbed. Thus the importance of one’s person is completely overrated, while all other persons are largely meaningless. They overestimate themselves and derive an unrealistic claim to the world from it. They constantly seek admiration, but react hypersensitively to criticism they receive. Empathy towards other people is unfamiliar to them. They think that they are not attacking, but are convinced that they are rightfully defending themselves.

To make it easier for you to recognize narcissists, here is a list of 33 references to a narcissistic personality.

 

 

 

2. Be very vigilant with eyes and ears

 

Be ready to listen a lot and very carefully. While narcissists prefer to talk about themselves, use your ability to read between the lines.

 

 

 

3. Frustration tolerance

 

Expect a low frustration tolerance. Narcissists are hardly capable of criticism and if they express understanding for other people, then it is often only disguised and comes back to you later. Narcissists react very quickly with anger because it is frequently part of their strategy.

 

 

 

4. Clarity

 

Be very specific with what you want. Offer as little leeway as possible for interpretations that can harm you.

 

 

 

5. Keep the focus

 

Don’t let the show distract you from what you’re about. Narcissists like to impose their rules on their surroundings. So that you do not spend yourself on trivialities, clarify your needs and priorities well. Keep an eye on your goal for the conversation.

Without giving in, it helps to ignore some statements and to react objectively instead of emotionally. Narcissists want to destabilize through provocations and enforce the rules of the game.

 

 

 

6. Motivation

 

Be aware of what your narcissistic interlocutor wants to achieve. Make it clear to him what his benefit is. Address the ego. The things that make narcissists so exhausting can also be used to steer them. Although narcissists themselves are extremely manipulative, their arrogance makes them comparatively easy to manipulate.

 

 

 

7. Expectations

 

They’re not gonna make narcissists right for long anyway. You can be tolerated for a short time. You should not expect more.

 

 

 

8. Beware of the meanest things

 

Narcissists are constantly trying to prove that they are the best and greatest in the world. Even that is not enough for them. To appear even bigger, they don’t tolerate competition next to them. So every supposed competitor is fought. In case of doubt, the narcissist will preventively hurt competitors wherever he can. By devaluing other people, he wants to appear even bigger and more unique.

 

 

 

9. Pay attention to your good mental condition

 

Make sure you have a good mental condition. This does not directly improve the conversation but reduces the risk of massive attacks. So smile as relaxed as possible and show a lot of patience without making involuntary concessions.

 

 

 

10. Written agreements

 

Opinions can change suddenly with narcissists and the whole effort is lost. Make agreements in writing. Write down everything you require so that you can use the protocols as needed. Narcissists are often very good at twisting things afterward. Therefore, you should confirm agreements in writing. You should not be surprised that you are not met with any sympathy for this.

 

 

 

11. Victim attitude

 

Communication at eye level? Forget it!

Narcissists are never to blame if something goes wrong. And they find more or less creative surprising reasons why others are to blame for something. Don’t let them manipulate you!

 

 

 

12. Unilateral rules

 

What rules? Narcissists act in the illusion that rules do not apply to them. They, on the other hand, have rules for other people, which they regularly change for their purposes if necessary.

 

 

 

13. Pay attention to your independence

 

Protect your position and take care of yourself. Narcissists are eager to expand their power to impose rules on you.

 

 

 

14. Praise

 

Narcissists are very receptive to praise. Praise when it is appropriate, and the narcissist will treat you more kindly. Only he may not have the impression you are exerting influence thereby.

 

 

 

15. Therapeutic offers for narcissists

 

How dare you? Narcissists are perfect, they have no problems, and other people have problems. So why should a narcissist be grateful if you want to help him with his behavior? So don’t try to offer narcissists psychotherapy, otherwise, you’ll need help yourself soon.

 

 

 

16. Ask instead of demanding

 

Ask little, expect little. Narcissists are more likely to respond to requests than to demands or even threats. Especially the easily offended type reacts extremely allergic to pressure.

 

 

 

17. Be careful with feedback

 

Direct accusations against narcissists usually end conversations immediately. Even narcissists react to harmless and cautious feedback as if they were harsh attacks. They react offended and insulted because it scratches their self-image. Then it rages internally and doesn’t calm down for a long time. The anger can lead however also easy to clear aggression.

To escape such unwelcome feedback, they like to surround themselves with submissive people, with flatterers who stabilize their illusions.

 

 

 

18. Don’t count on forgiveness.

 

Narcissists have a good memory for perceived offenses. They won’t forget them for the rest of their lives, and they are looking for revenge. This can make narcissists very dangerous, even after a long time.

 

 

 

19. Emotions

 

Apart from the negative emotions typical of narcissists, be vigilant when expressing emotions. Then I recommend caution. Narcissists are very good at pretending emotions when it serves their purposes. Body language is a means of manipulation for them.

 

 

 

20. Apologies

 

You can submit to the narcissist with proven apologies, he will not make a serious apology. Narcissists do not make mistakes themselves.

 

 

 

21. Feelings of guilt

 

Narcissists are anxious to make other people feel guilty. This unsettles other people, silences them, and makes them easier to manipulate. Despite the importance of self-reflection, be careful not to get self-doubt installed.

 

 

 

22. Envy

 

Are you happy about your success? Whether you have achieved something idealistic or material, narcissists react with envy. If you achieve something, you could distract the audience from the magnificence of the narcissist, and that will not be tolerated.

 

 

 

23. Be careful in your choice of words

 

In your formulations, you can orientate yourself on non-violent communication, according to Marshall B. Rosenberg. The model helps to keep communication as peaceful as possible. Narcissists, however, always tend to find annoyance, even when there is none.

 

 

 

24. Adjournments

 

If you don’t make any progress on communications, you’d better adjourn. Don’t let tantrums force you to make promises. You would regret that later.

 

 

 

25. Professional quick-wittedness

 

You also don’t have to make it unnecessarily easy for narcissists to have the last word. Maintain your quick-wittedness. Professional quick-wittedness tends to de-escalate and clearly shows limits, without a participant necessarily having to lose prestige.

The wrong form of quick-wittedness can, however, lead to lasting disturbances in the relationship.

 

 

 

26. Avoid narcissists if you can!

 

This is the most important hint: communicate with narcissists when it is not necessary. The otherwise praiseworthy human endeavor to bring about improvement through communication has little chance of success here. With narcissists, you may expect to be insulted, insulted, and embarrassed. You fantasize, create confusion to distract you, and narcissists can become very aggressive so that you learn through pain to show the expected one-sided respect.

 

 

 

27. Important conversations

 

Prepare critical conversations carefully. If the conversation can have significant consequences, professional help is worthwhile. I have often helped to prepare for communication with narcissists. A lot of feedback reminds me of how good this helps. For legal aspects, please ask a lawyer.

 

 

 

28. See the good aspects

 

Within certain limits, narcissists can be very helpful. Their assertiveness can also be used for good projects. But even then, the price that the environment pays must not be too high. Be careful!

 

 

 

29. Detecting manipulations

 

Narcissists are masters of manipulation. To avoid their influence, it is helpful to recognize their tricks. In my articles, I deal with how you recognize the most common manipulation techniques and how you recognize manipulators.

 

 

 

30. Superficiality

 

Narcissists orient themselves on their benefit and are otherwise rather superficial. Do not expect unselfish interest that is not part of a selfish intention.

Help in dealing with narcissists (no legal advice!)

 

It's urgent? Thanks to an immediate bank transfer, it is also possible to organize sessions at short notice, often even on the same day. In any case, you can orient yourself by reading the list with fees. Typically, a telephone call of 60 minutes is enough. Either you come to me in Berlin or we organize a telephone meeting or use the Internet with a video conferencing system. If you wish professional support for your decision-making, communication, or because you suffer emotionally from narcissists, then we can arrange an appointment.

As much as I would like to - with the large number of requests I receive, I keep the amount of volunteer help at a feasible level.

If you want professional support (in the areas I offer and this does not include any legal advice), then we can make an appointment. Either you come to me in Berlin or we make a telephone session or use the Internet with video support. This has proven to be very successful. Thanks to a real-time bank transfer, it is also possible to book appointments at short notice. We can make an appointment first or even easier and faster; you book your session and as soon as the fee is received, we find the next available appointment.

If it is about the psychological effects, I offer therapeutic help for people suffering from narcissists and coaching for other issues. You can find the fees here. Please note the reduced fees for therapeutic assistance for people suffering from narcissistic abuse.

Not all sufferers have the financial means to do this, I know. You can then at least use the comment function to exchange information with other sufferers. Sometimes I also answer questions there, occasionally even beyond that. I am aware of the suffering that can result from contact with narcissists. However, the day has only 24h, and therefore I ask for an understanding of my procedures. I am aware of the suffering that often results from contact with narcissists. That is why I offer a free telephone consultation every first Monday of the month from 9:00 to 12:00 for initial impulses. Please use exclusively the telephone number +49 (0)30 864 213 65 for this purpose. Calls outside these hours and on other telephone numbers exclusively in the context of the professional support mentioned.

So: Questions that may also interest other people, please ask in the comments. Some topics are of a more private nature and I offer professional support for them. Let's have a direct conversation about this. If you are interested in support, for organizational questions and appointments you can reach me personally best by e-mail (mail@karstennoack.de), conditionally also by phone +49 (0)30 864 213 65., mobile +49 (0)30 864 213 65.

 

Preparation of important conversations and negotiations

 

Communication can be very easy. But often it is not. Sometimes we say things and then later notice from the reaction of our conversation partners that they seem to have spoken to someone completely different. I didn't say that with the best will in the world. - Or did I say that after all?

More or less consciously, conversations are about convincing other people of something - be it a special offer, your personality, a perspective, or a necessity. If this doesn't happen fast enough and above all not exactly to the point and descriptively, the person we are talking to quickly loses interest, and we lose the hoped-for opportunity. — Conversation failed.

You can let me support you in the preparation of your conversations and negotiations (to be on the safe side: no legal advice!). Find out how you and your message are perceived (arguments, body language, language, voice, and much more). I will familiarize you with effective tools and communication strategies. Develop your psychological skills, learn to stay calm, act confidently, remain authentic, and finally convince.

Just ask me personally

 

Please post any questions that may interest other readers in the comments. Are you looking for professional support?

If you are interested in coaching, training, or consulting, for organizational questions and to make an appointment, you can reach me best via this contact form (It is up to you whether you enter personal data) or by e-mail (mail@karstennoack.com). Otherwise, you may reach me by telephone at +49(0)30 864 213 68 and mobile phone at +49(0)1577 704 53 56 from Monday to Thursday from 9:00 to 18:00. Most of the time I am in sessions, so please leave a message with your phone number in Germany, then. Please remember to be very specific about the reason for your call. I will call you back as soon as possible. The privacy policy can be found here.

Transparency is important. Therefore, you will find answers to frequently asked questions already here, for example about me (profile), the services, the fees, and getting to know me. If this suits you, I look forward to working with you.

 

 

 

Message

 

I have read and accept the privacy policy.

Remarks:

In the address bar of your browser, the URL should begin with "https://www.karstennoack.com/...". This indicates a secure connection (SSL). Whether you enter your real name is up to you.

Beware of comments!

 

According to my purpose as a writer, I am responsible for writing and you as a reader are responsible for reading. If you now also write, and I have to read that, you will mess up everything here. Feel encouraged to do just that, I appreciate it!

P.S.

 

What experience have you had with narcissists?

Articles

Expecting apologies from narcissists

Again and again, non-narcissists are under the illusion of receiving an honest apology from narcissistic personalities. You should know; narcissists don’t really apologize and respond to such demands as if they were under attack.

17 signs that someone is a manipulator

17 signs that someone is a manipulator

Not every attempt to manipulate us is obvious. Especially the professional manipulators learn how to hide their intentions. Unfortunately, there are a lot of those manipulators in business and private life. Learn how to recognize manipulators.

read more
36 indications to identify narcissists

36 indications to identify narcissists

Narcissists are driven primarily by power, fame, and recognition. That’s not bad, right? If there weren’t so many people with narcissistic tendencies, there wouldn’t be many achievements and world records. However, we would not have to suffer from many disadvantages. As fascinating as narcissists may seem at first glance, they are in reality selfish and emotionally cold. Only their self-pity is boundless. Only the others make mistakes.

In the article, you will learn how to identify narcissists.

read more
As you can recognize narcissists:

 I have suffered, Jesus Christ has also suffered.
 But now I am well again. - Karsten Noack

This article is a short excerpt from the more comprehensive course materials my clients receive in a group or individual training or coaching.

Published: January 2, 2012
Author: Karsten Noack
Revision: October 1, 2021
Translation: ./.
German version: https://www.karstennoack.de/zu-ist-zuviel-umgang-mit-narzissten/
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#351377

17 signs that someone is a manipulator

17 signs that someone is a manipulator

Protecting yourself from manipulation
17 hints that someone is a manipulator

Manipulators

 

Not every attempt to manipulate us is obvious. Especially the professional manipulators learn how to hide their intentions. Unfortunately, there are a lot of those manipulators in business and private life. Learn how to recognize manipulators.

Manipulator

 

Manipulators are unfair and always their focus is on their interests. They’re looking for advantages for themselves even when they are lead to huge disadvantages for others

You can meet a lot of manipulators every day.

 

 

 

17 signs to recognize a manipulator

 

The easiest way to recognize the manipulator is by trusting your gut feeling. With a good portion of self-reflection, you know yourself, and therefore you realize an upcoming gut feeling. Because your gut feeling is based on a lot of experience and many factors like body language, it can signalize when it’s time to have a closer look at the intention and behavior of someone.

 

 

 

17 typical signs that someone may be in a manipulator

 

 

1. Liars

 

The most experienced manipulators are well-trained liars. Therefore, they are excellent at hiding their intentions. It was really hard to get done. They know how to hide the typical signs of manipulation.

 

 

 

2. Exaggerated openness

 

Manipulators often behave as if they are very open-minded and willing to reveal everything you ask about. This way, they want to look more honest than they are. So manipulators want to get other people to reveal more about themselves. If they have the opportunity, then they can exploit that for themselves shamelessly.

 

 

 

3. Appeal to the conscience

 

Manipulators regularly refer to values ​​that are important to their victims. The values ​​are then used to develop compassion and concern for something in the interests of the manipulator. Who wants to violate his values?

 

 

 

4. Promoting guilt feelings

 

Manipulators do not take responsibility for anything, except when it is beneficial as a trick. In other people, however, they promote guilt feelings. Who has guilty feelings, is more restrained. Anyone who feels guilty, does not pay much attention to their own needs, feels obligated. Even the physiology of guilty feelings disturbs the inner balance. And manipulators know how to get us there.

While most people are still researching to find out what a Double Bind is, manipulators are already using it masterfully. If it were not so mean, we could admire such nasty people for their abilities. But such behavior leads to the dark side of power.

 

 

 

5. They appear empathetic

 

Manipulators make compliments that are one size too big, but who cares? Flattery of the ego is gladly accepted. The aftertaste is ignored. If it fits their plans, they are the most pleasant conversation partners. Well-versed manipulators anchor good conditions right from the beginning so that we can enjoy their closeness and goodwill. Then we do not want to miss this anymore. Manipulators close the trap slowly and imperceptibly.

Manipulators know the vulnerabilities of their chosen victims and use them without inhibitions. At first, it may feel as if the manipulator is particularly attentive and interested. But then openness becomes a personal disadvantage.

The less their potential victims practice self-reflection, the easier it will be for manipulators. Those who know their sore spots, let them heal and pay attention to themselves.

 

 

 

6. Twisting the facts

 

Manipulators are twisting the facts so much that we even develop doubts about where we were previously safe. The technique of reframing is in their toolbox, and they know to bend the reality in their interest.

 

 

 

7. They stage themselves as victims

 

Manipulators hurt other people and they should apologize for that. Nasty influencers like to make themselves victims. Anyone who stages himself as a victim enjoys some protection. Alleged victims hide as such. It also increases the pressure of observers. Who will be the victim of the common?

 

 

 

8. They make thinking difficult

 

Manipulators do a lot to prevent clear thinking. By doing so, they want to ensure that nobody recognizes their bad intentions. Manipulators use confusion, distraction, and indignation.

 

 

 

9. Egocentricity

 

Manipulators only have their interests in mind. If other people play a role, then only if it serves the interests of the manipulator.

 

 

 

10. The exploitation of good nature

 

Manipulators use good nature. Natural inhibitions are unimportant to them. Even small symbolic concessions are abused by them.

 

 

 

11. Lack of distance

 

Manipulators ignore the healthy need for privacy. They cross borders. In this way, they bring other people out of balance.

 

 

 

12. Authenticity

 

Manipulators know what we want to hear, or what makes us do what they want. It usually takes some time to realize that manipulators are untrustworthy. They do not walk the talk. Statements and actual behavior do not match. Honest people, promises are sacred. Manipulators only know their interests.

 

 

13. Name dropping

 

Manipulators tend to become more important. They use titles, names of famous people they allegedly know and show all kinds of status symbols.

 

 

 

14. False helpfulness

 

They like to appear helpful, but at best they expect a multiple of interest if they help. Everything is just a means to an end and when they have their foot in the door, it starts.

 

 

15. Linguistic fluency

 

Linguistic fluency is quite a valued skill. But it can be abused by manipulators. The basic tool for the manipulation of reality is the manipulation of language. Clear communication is avoided and the answers to questions are often evasive.

 

 

 

16. Gut feeling

 

We rarely trust the gut feeling, but it often announces quite early when something is wrong. Then the facts are missing, and therefore we do not trust the feeling. It is worthwhile to take a closer look at such cases. The gut feeling is based on experience and takes into account subtle clues that the conscious does not notice.

 

 

 

17. Additional perspectives

 

Involve people you trust and then form your own opinion. Find out who probably does not have your well-being in mind.

 

 

 

How to protect yourself from manipulation

 

To protect yourself from manipulators, it is important to know yourself, your values, ​​and your priorities. Anyone who can recognize clues about the properties of a manipulator can learn to deal with such people and their manipulation attempts.

How? Read the article Stop it, I hate that: Recognize the 11 most common manipulation techniques.

Preparation of important conversations and negotiations

 

Communication can be very easy. But often it is not. Sometimes we say things and then later notice from the reaction of our conversation partners that they seem to have spoken to someone completely different. I didn't say that with the best will in the world. - Or did I say that after all?

More or less consciously, conversations are about convincing other people of something - be it a special offer, your personality, a perspective, or a necessity. If this doesn't happen fast enough and above all not exactly to the point and descriptively, the person we are talking to quickly loses interest, and we lose the hoped-for opportunity. — Conversation failed.

You can let me support you in the preparation of your conversations and negotiations (to be on the safe side: no legal advice!). Find out how you and your message are perceived (arguments, body language, language, voice, and much more). I will familiarize you with effective tools and communication strategies. Develop your psychological skills, learn to stay calm, act confidently, remain authentic, and finally convince.

Just ask me personally

 

Please post any questions that may interest other readers in the comments. Are you looking for professional support?

If you are interested in coaching, training, or consulting, for organizational questions and to make an appointment, you can reach me best via this contact form (It is up to you whether you enter personal data) or by e-mail (mail@karstennoack.com). Otherwise, you may reach me by telephone at +49(0)30 864 213 68 and mobile phone at +49(0)1577 704 53 56 from Monday to Thursday from 9:00 to 18:00. Most of the time I am in sessions, so please leave a message with your phone number in Germany, then. Please remember to be very specific about the reason for your call. I will call you back as soon as possible. The privacy policy can be found here.

Transparency is important. Therefore, you will find answers to frequently asked questions already here, for example about me (profile), the services, the fees, and getting to know me. If this suits you, I look forward to working with you.

 

 

 

Message

 

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Remarks:

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Frequently asked questions

What is manipulation?

Manipulative behavior is defined as the covert exertion of influence. When manipulating people, manipulative contemporaries want to influence the perception, thinking and actions of target persons as unnoticed as possible.

What are manipulators?

Manipulators are persons who manipulate. They do this by direct or subliminal influence in order to trigger or control certain behaviors.

Is manipulation bad?

Manipulation is considered negative when the needs, goals and benefits of target persons are not respected.

P.S.

 

How do you recognize a manipulator?

Articles

Narcissists as co-founders of a start-up

What to do if co-founders in the startup have a narcissistic personality?

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Great Ideas Need Wings As Well As Landing Gear And...

This article is a short excerpt from the more comprehensive course materials my clients receive in a group or individual training or coaching.

Published: June 27, 2009
Author: Karsten Noack
Revision: August 22nd, 2022
Translation: ./.
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#189

36 indications to identify narcissists

36 indications to identify narcissists

How do you recognize narcissists?
Too much is too much! Dealing with narcissists

Narcissism

 

Narcissists are driven primarily by power, fame, and recognition. That’s not bad, right? If there weren’t so many people with narcissistic tendencies, there wouldn’t be many achievements and world records. However, we would not have to suffer from many disadvantages. As fascinating as narcissists may seem at first glance, they are in reality selfish and emotionally cold. Only their self-pity is boundless. Just the others make mistakes.

In the article, you will learn how to identify narcissists.

How can narcissists be identified?

 

The more of the following indications are observable, the more likely narcissistic tendencies are present. But please do not exaggerate; everyone has traces of the following tendencies.

 

 

 

36 signs of a narcissistic personality

 

This article is not aimed at diagnosing pathological narcissists, but rather at avoiding nasty contemporaries and not being abused by them.

 

 

 

1. Inadequate self-esteem

 

The self-esteem displayed seems inadequate in terms of personality, position, and experience. They claim a higher status than the environment wants to grant.

 

 

 

2. Self-interest

 

Narcissists are looking out for their advantage. As long as it gives them an advantage, they can appear nice and engaging. Once such people have reached their goal, this is over. Then it’s time for payback because narcissists have a good memory when it comes to taking revenge.

 

 

 

3. Arrogance

 

Very typical is arrogant behavior. The underlying need for superiority may be well hidden, but it drives narcissists. To achieve this longingly desired superiority, they will try to make their counterpart feel inferior. If you fall into the trap, you feel a little smaller, stupider, and more insignificant next to a narcissist.

For narcissists, everything they say and do is right simply because they say and do it. They expect that every utterance and action is accepted without hesitation as right and as the only truth.

 

 

 

4. Without considering losses

 

Narcissists hurt other people without the slightest inhibition or remorse. This makes such people so attractive for unpleasant tasks and paves their way to higher positions.

 

 

 

5. Striving for power

 

Very often the need is expressed to exert influence and strive for quick success. They usually show they are striving for dominance quite openly. Their choice of words alone makes their claim obvious.

 

 

 

6. Actors

 

If it serves their purposes, they can disguise themselves for a while and even seem more submissive. All the more merciless is their behavior after such an unpleasant phase for them.

 

 

 

7. Bad listener

 

They don’t care about other people’s babble unless it’s compliments. Or they can exploit it for their purposes.

 

 

 

8. Wiseguys

 

The wise guy can do everything, knows everything, …And attacks everyone who notices that it is not true.

 

 

 

9. Masters of the first impression

 

Narcissists are trained to make an above-average first impression. As dazzlers, they invest a lot of effort to impress.

 

 

 

10. Manipulators

 

Deviousness, frequent attempts at manipulation, and control of the environment are very familiar to narcissists.

 

 

 

11. Searches for praise

 

Compliments are requested, if necessary, with clear pressure instead of more gentle Fishing for Compliments. Otherwise, they rarely listen properly. Praise may be delivered without substance. Homages are accepted.

 

 

 

12. Poor victim

 

Even if they are richly endowed, it is still insufficient what they receive. The wonderful gift of God deserves more, much more.

 

 

 

13. They exert pressure

 

Narcissists exert pressure. Charmingly and seemingly subtly, they manipulatively convey what they expect from their counterpart, without any possibility of discussion.

 

 

 

14. They are more important than all other people

 

All men are equal, what a fallacy! The presence of a narcissist is a gift for the world around, ordinary people are an imposition. Those who do not realize this, thus only prove their stupidity.

 

 

 

15. They avoid emotional topics

 

Emotional topics are avoided. Emotions make people vulnerable, and that is the last thing narcissists want to be. If it gets too emotional, they quickly change the subject. Narcissists can certainly perceive the feelings and emotions of others. However, they are not interested in the emotional lives of other people to understand them better, but to gain an advantage from this knowledge.

 

 

 

16. Unilateral claims for themselves

 

Only the best is good enough for them. They live at a higher standard, even when their pockets are empty. Other people should limit themselves.

 

 

 

17. Masquerade

 

Narcissists aspire to degrees and titles, preferably also doctorates, from the Internet. Behind the façade, it often looks very disappointing.

 

 

 

19. Morality is something for others

 

Morale is only important in terms of not getting caught. Narcissists are even proud of it when they manage to get away with questionable behavior.

 

 

 

20. Self-centeredness

 

Me, me, me. Narcissists prefer to talk about themselves and their plans.

 

 

 

21. Talking instead of listening

 

They talk to people instead of with them. The others, the audience, should listen.

 

 

 

22. Critics

 

Criticism is abundantly distributed, but not accepted.

 

 

 

23. Arrogance

 

Narcissists consider people who follow rules to be stupid.

 

 

 

24. Vanity

 

Outstanding vanity is one of the defining characteristics. Narcissists want to be more beautiful than their surroundings, to be admired, and to be flawless. For this purpose, they make greater efforts and invest a great deal of money. Appearances are particularly important to them.

 

 

 

25. No real sympathy

 

Empathy is faked at best. Typical is the lack of real sadness and other emotional involvement. As a result, narcissists are incapable of loving, feeling remorse, or guilt.

Although narcissists are often good actors, attentive observers can see that real emotions are conspicuously rare. However, it requires appropriate knowledge.

 

 

 

26. Intransigence

 

Apologies are expected from other people but not given, because mistakes are only made by others. If you want to upset narcissists and turn them against you, then contradict them. Criticism or even the most constructive feedback is not welcome. If you ignore this, you will soon feel the consequences.

 

 

 

27. One-sided expectations

 

They expect that other people will put their needs aside in their favor.

 

 

 

28. They want to be admired

 

Narcissists are very keen on being admired by other people.

 

 

 

29. They are envious: there can be only ONE

 

Narcissists envy others a lot and think they are envied themselves. Mirror, mirror on the wall, nobody is as great as the narcissist. To achieve this, narcissists do their utmost to outdo others in various disciplines. If an ignorant person is then so insolent and does not respect this claim, narcissists often react with envy and devalue the success of other people with malice and resentment.

 

 

 

30. The supposed source of intelligence and inspiration

 

Their topics are far more important than those of other people. This is why narcissists interrupt their less qualified people in their environment more frequently.

 

 

 

31. Euphemists

 

If an ignorant person is then so insolent and does not respect this claim, narcissists regularly react with envy and devalue the success of other people with malice and resentment.

 

 

 

32. Tyrants

 

Equipped with power, the narcissist turns out to be a tyrant. Illusions and prayers of thrust do not change this.

 

 

 

33. Ruthless exploitation

 

For their personal goals, narcissists unscrupulously exploit other people and show overall parasitic behavior in relationships.

 

 

 

34. Difficult relationship with offspring

 

The relationship with their children and grandchildren is special. Here, the typical characteristics of narcissists collide with parenthood and the selfish desire to make their mark on the offspring.

 

 

 

35. The need for control

 

Narcissists avoid anything that reminds them that they may not always have everything in their lives under control. Therefore, they constantly try to demonstrate that they are setting the rules of the game. Exception: they can stage themselves as victims to gain advantages.

 

 

 

36. What a gift for the world

 

They also remind us more often, without being asked, that they are an immense enrichment for the world. Their grandiosity is almost unbearable. They are always better than other people. That is why they expect corresponding privileges that do justice to their outstanding importance.

Indications that you do not belong to the narcissists

 

Probably everyone has qualities in themselves that match narcissists. The quantity and combination make the toxicity.

 

Here, in a nutshell, a few hints that you are not a narcissist:

  • You have honest friends. Your friends may also give you uncomfortable feedback without being removed from your contact list.
  • You listen well. You listen because you care about other people and their needs.
  • You are authentic.
  • You know that other people are an enrichment to the world.

 

And, because it concerns so many people, I have dedicated a separate article about it: Help, am I a narcissist? 8 indications that you are not a narcissist

 

Beware of the first impression

 

Narcissists may radiate charm and act quite nice at first glance. Many seem eloquent, humorous, self-confident and pull so the attention. But as good the first impression may be, it doesn’t lake long, and the narcissist unmasks himself as an egomaniac. With their self-indulgence and self-centeredness, they strain our nerves with their airs and graces. Most of the elaborate packaging is not worth the content, but it is away deceived vehemently. But the beautiful appearance is deceptive, and the facade collapses, all just for show. As long as can be found a few admirers, it proceeds. They certainly have their short-term entertainment value. Unfortunately, many deceived, so it is possible to get into positions where they can cause some damage to some narcissists.

 

 

 

Impaired self-esteem

 

The exaggerated desire for recognition and admiration caused by an impaired self-esteem. For such an ego, every stage is too small for that they could be shared . Where other people anyway have only one value ; as an admirer ! So renounce narcissists on empathy, and can be enjoyed on any form of feedback that is not understood as recognition.

It can be seen a great advantage such contemporaries early and a wide berth to make them. Now, it may be that a situation of you calls to communicate with a narcissist . Therefore, now here are some recommendations that sometimes save a few gray hairs.

 

 

 

Tips for communicating with narcissists

 

  • Be well-prepared and listen very carefully.
  • Expect a low frustration tolerance.
  • Be very specific with what you want.
  • Keep the focus. Do not be distracted by all the red herrings .
  • Be aware of what your narcissistic interlocutor wants to achieve.
  • Talk to the ego. The problematic ego can be used to redirect them.
  • Ask little, expect little.
  • Look for a good own state. While this does not improve the conversation, however, reduces your risk of massive attacks. So possible smile and show a lot of patience, without making concessions involuntarily.
  • In black and white, post all the essentials, so that they can use the protocols as needed. Narcissists are often very good to twist it subsequently things. Confirm agreements in writing or confirm themselves in writing.
  • Victimization: Narcissists are never to blame if something goes wrong. They are more or less creative, why others are to blame for something. Do let you be manipulated by it.
  • Most important recommendation: Let it when it does not have to be! The otherwise commendable human desire to communicate in search for an improvement has little chance of success when the other one is a narcissist.

Help in dealing with narcissists (no legal advice!)

 

It's urgent? Thanks to an immediate bank transfer, it is also possible to organize sessions at short notice, often even on the same day. In any case, you can orient yourself by reading the list with fees. Typically, a telephone call of 60 minutes is enough. Either you come to me in Berlin or we organize a telephone meeting or use the Internet with a video conferencing system. If you wish professional support for your decision-making, communication, or because you suffer emotionally from narcissists, then we can arrange an appointment.

As much as I would like to - with the large number of requests I receive, I keep the amount of volunteer help at a feasible level.

If you want professional support (in the areas I offer and this does not include any legal advice), then we can make an appointment. Either you come to me in Berlin or we make a telephone session or use the Internet with video support. This has proven to be very successful. Thanks to a real-time bank transfer, it is also possible to book appointments at short notice. We can make an appointment first or even easier and faster; you book your session and as soon as the fee is received, we find the next available appointment.

If it is about the psychological effects, I offer therapeutic help for people suffering from narcissists and coaching for other issues. You can find the fees here. Please note the reduced fees for therapeutic assistance for people suffering from narcissistic abuse.

Not all sufferers have the financial means to do this, I know. You can then at least use the comment function to exchange information with other sufferers. Sometimes I also answer questions there, occasionally even beyond that. I am aware of the suffering that can result from contact with narcissists. However, the day has only 24h, and therefore I ask for an understanding of my procedures. I am aware of the suffering that often results from contact with narcissists. That is why I offer a free telephone consultation every first Monday of the month from 9:00 to 12:00 for initial impulses. Please use exclusively the telephone number +49 (0)30 864 213 65 for this purpose. Calls outside these hours and on other telephone numbers exclusively in the context of the professional support mentioned.

So: Questions that may also interest other people, please ask in the comments. Some topics are of a more private nature and I offer professional support for them. Let's have a direct conversation about this. If you are interested in support, for organizational questions and appointments you can reach me personally best by e-mail (mail@karstennoack.de), conditionally also by phone +49 (0)30 864 213 65., mobile +49 (0)30 864 213 65.

 

P.S.

 

What lessons have you learned about narcissists?

Articles

Expecting apologies from narcissists

Again and again, non-narcissists are under the illusion of receiving an honest apology from narcissistic personalities. You should know; narcissists don’t really apologize and respond to such demands as if they were under attack.

17 signs that someone is a manipulator

17 signs that someone is a manipulator

Not every attempt to manipulate us is obvious. Especially the professional manipulators learn how to hide their intentions. Unfortunately, there are a lot of those manipulators in business and private life. Learn how to recognize manipulators.

read more
36 indications to identify narcissists

36 indications to identify narcissists

Narcissists are driven primarily by power, fame, and recognition. That’s not bad, right? If there weren’t so many people with narcissistic tendencies, there wouldn’t be many achievements and world records. However, we would not have to suffer from many disadvantages. As fascinating as narcissists may seem at first glance, they are in reality selfish and emotionally cold. Only their self-pity is boundless. Only the others make mistakes.

In the article, you will learn how to identify narcissists.

read more

This article is a short excerpt from the more comprehensive course materials my clients receive in a group or individual training or coaching.

Published: June 21, 2001
Author: Karsten Noack
Revision: August 14, 2019
Translation: ./.
German version: 
K: 
H: 
T: RR
#1890

error: Copyright